 # Round-Anything API

This is a deep dive into the Round-Anything library API for OpenScad.
For a general overview of features and how to get started and the motivation behind the library, see the written overview or the video overview below.

### Quick side-note

I'm currently working on a community website for "Code-CAD" (like OpenSCAD). A good way to think of it is codepen crossed with a thing repository. You can check it out at cadhub.xyz or it's repo.

## MinkowskiRound

This module will round its children. External and internal radii can be defined separately. The syntax is:

``````minkowskiRound(OR, IR, enable, boundingEnvelope) {
// children
}``````

enable: Toggle whether the rounding enabled, as the module is computationally expensive, so it's convenient to have an easy way to disable it.
boundingEnvelope: An array with three values which should be large enough to capture the children

Because this module will round anything after-the-fact, it's useful adding radii to complex shapes that would be very difficult to do otherwise. Such as the curving internal edge of this cube-cylinder union.

``````\$fn=20;
minkowskiRound(0.7,1.5,1,[50,50,50])
union(){
cube([6,6,22]);
rotate([30,45,10])
cylinder(h=22,d=10);
}``````

## polyRound

Function for adding radii to any point of a polygon. Syntax is:

``polygonArray = polyRound(radiipoints,fn,mode)``

radiiPoints: nest array of [x, y, r] points. That is x-y coordinates and the radius for that point, .ie. [[x1, y1, r1],[x2, y2, r2] ...]
fn: The amount of point each radius is subdivided.
mode: Three different modes for handling conflicting radii:

1. Default, automatically reduces radii to stop conflicts.
2. Debugging mode, print reduced radii to the console.

The function only returns the polygon points, therefore it's typical to pair it with polygon and linear_extrude. Here's a simple example

``````radiiPoints=[[-4,0,1],[5,3,1.5],[0,7,0.1],[8,7,10],[20,20,0.8],[10,0,10]];

To further understand how the radii conflict resolution works here's an example of that.

``````//example of radii conflict handling and debuging feature

// the squre shape being 20 wide, two radii of 10 both fit into the shape (just)

//radii are too large and are reduced to fit and will be reduce to 10 and 10

//radii are too large again and are reduced to fit, but keep their ratios r1 will go from 10 to 4 and r2 will go from 40 to 16

//mode 2 = no radii limiting

See bellow for an even deeper dive into the logic behind it.

Function for moving radii points to make their reuse easier. Syntax is:

``translatedRadiiPoints = translateRadiiPoints(radiiPoints, tran, rot);``

radiiPoints: list of [x, y, r] points to be translated.
tran: [x, y] translation points.
rot: how to rotate the points on the z-axis.

Because the function returns radiiPoints, they still need to be passed to the polyRound function before used as a polygon. Though realistically points are used multiple times in one part hence the need to translate them while still in point form, and so would be combined with concat first. Here's a simple example.

``````nutW=5.5;   nutH=3; boltR=1.6;
minT=2;     minR=0.8;
[-boltR,        minT,      0],
[-nutW/2,       minT,      minR],
[-nutW/2,       minT+nutH, minR],
[nutW/2,        minT+nutH, minR],
[nutW/2,        minT,      minR],
[boltR,         minT,      0],
];
translate([-5,0,0])polygon(polyRound(nutCapture(),20));

aSquare=concat(
[[0,0,0]],
negativeNutCapture,
[[20,0,0]],
rotatedNegativeNutCapture,
[[20,10,0]],
[[0,10,0]]
);
polygon(polyRound(aSquare,20));``````

## shell2d

Module that will create a shell out of any 2d object. If given more than one child, the inside will be filled with the following children. Syntax is:

``````shell2d(offset1,offset2=0,minOR=0,minIR=0){
// shell child
// fill children
}``````

offset1, offset2: Two offsets that together define the thickness of the shell and are measured relative to the perimeter of the original 2d shape. Negative value go towards the centre of the shape, positive value go away.
minOR, minIR: minimum radii can be defined, if you're using this in conjunction with ployRound they can be ignored for the most part.

Here's a simple example.

``````radiiPoints=[[-4,0,1],[5,3,1.5],[0,7,0.1],[8,7,10],[20,20,0.8],[10,0,10]];
translate([0,-10,0])shell2d(-0.5){
translate([8,8])gridpattern(memberW = 0.3, sqW = 1, iter = 17, r = 0.2);
}``````

## beamChain

This function takes a series of radii points and creats a beam of constant thickness with each pair of points. Syntax is:

``radiiPoints = beamChain(radiiPoints, offset1, offset2, mode, minR, startAngle, endAngle)``

offset1, offset2: The two offsets that give the beam it's thickness. When using with mode=2 only offset1 is needed as there is no return path for the polygon.
startAngle, endAngle: Angle at each end of the beam, different mode determine if this angle is relative to the ending legs of the beam or absolute.
mode: Different modes for how the end angles are handled and if the return path of the beam polygon in included.

1. StartAngle and endAngle are relative to the angle of the last two points and equal 90deg if not defined.
2. Only the forward path is defined, useful for combining the beam with other radii points, see examples for a use-case.
3. StartAngle and endAngle are absolute from the x axis and are 0 if not defined.

This function is very flexible in how it's used so below are a series of examples increasing complexity.

The first shows how a series of points can form the bean chain, how radii can be added and adding thickness to the beams

The second example shows adding a angle and filleting radius to the end of the beams

Lastly this example show how seperating the beams polygong path into forward and return paths can be used to add extra polgon points at the beam. The advantage of this over regular union is adding a transitioning radius between the beam and the extra points.

``````function beamPoints(r1,r2,rStart=0,rEnd=0)=[[0,0,rStart],[2,8,0],[5,4,r1],[15,10,r2],[17,2,rEnd]];

// chained lines by themselves
translate(){
}

translate([0,-7,0]){
}

// Give make the lines beams with some thickness
translate([0,-7*2,0]){
}

// Add an angle to the start of the beam
translate([0,-7*3,0]){
}

// Put a negative radius at the start for transationing to a flat surface
translate([0,-7*4,0]){
}

// Define more points for a polygon to be atteched to the end of the beam chain
clipP=[[16,1.2,0],[16,0,0],[16.5,0,0],[16.5,1,0.2],[17.5,1,0.2],[17.5,0,0],[18,0,0],[18,1.2,0]];
translate([-15,-7*5+3,0]){
for(i=[0:len(clipP)-1]){color("red")translate([clipP[i].x,clipP[i].y,0])cylinder(d=0.2, h=1);}
polygon(polyRound(clipP,20));
}

// Attached to the end of the beam chain by dividing the beam paths in forward and return and
// concat other polygon inbetween
translate([0,-7*6,0]){
entirePath=concat(forwardPath,clipP,returnPath);
polygon(polyRound(entirePath,20));
}

translate([0,-7*7-2,0]){
entirePath=concat(forwardPath,clipP,returnPath);
polygon(polyRound(entirePath,20));
}

// Define multiple shells from the the one set of points
translate([0,-7*9,0]){
for(i=[0:2]){polygon(polyRound(beamChain(ex3,offset1=-1+i*0.4, offset2=-1+i*0.4+0.25),20));}
}``````

## mirrorPoints

Function for mirroring radiiPoints. The advantage of this over other mirror techniques is when using radii points it allows for adding a radius to the transition of the two halves. syntax is:

``mirroredRadiiPoinst = mirrorPoints(radiiPoints, rot, endAttenuation)``

rot: angle of rotation.
endAttenuation: [start, end]. Amount of points to be removed from either end of the radiiPoints. Its purpose is to remove single points from the ends if they lie right on the mirror axis and would cause two points on top of each other.

Below is a simple example.

``````centerRadius=7;
mirroredPoints2=mirrorPoints(points,0,[0,0]);
translate([0,-20,0])polygon(polyRound(mirroredPoints2,20));``````

## polyRoundExtrude

Module for extruding a radiiPoints, where the top and the bottom of the extrusion can be rounded. syntax is:

``polyRoundExtrude(radiiPoints,length,r1,r2,fn,convexity)``

length: length of the extrusion.
r1, r2: Start and end radii.
fn: amount of subdivisions for forming the polyhedron.
convexity: convexity of the underlying polyhedron.

This module is very similar to extrudeWithRadius in purpose, though by using radiiPoints directly instead of a generic 2d child it's abet to offer smoother curves in a more preformant manner, and so is recommended over extrudeWithRadius where possible. Below is a simple example.

``````radiiPoints=[[10,0,10],[20,20,1.1],[8,7,10],[0,7,0.3],[5,3,0.1],[-4,0,1]];

Module for extruding a 2d child, with the ability to put a radius on each end of the extrusion. This module is similar to polyRoundExtrude, though this module is more flexible as it's able to work on any 2d child, however it's less preformant. polyRoundExtrude is recommended over extrudeWithRadius if your use-case allows it.
Syntax is:

``````extrudeWithRadius(length,r1=0,r2=0,fn=30){
// 2d child
}``````

length: length of the extrusion.
r1, r2: Start and end radii.
fn: How much the radii are subdivided.

Below is a simple example.

``````radiiPoints=[[-4,0,1],[5,3,1.5],[0,7,0.1],[8,7,10],[20,20,0.8],[10,0,10]];